Finnish Sample Collections

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FUSION (Finland-United States Investigation of NIDDM Genetics) Study

The goal of the Finland-United States Investigation of NIDDM Genetics (FUSION) study is to localize and identify genetic variants that predispose to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) or are responsible for variability in diabetes-related quantitative traits. The FUSION study sample includes approximately 800 families ascertained for sibling pairs affected with type 2 diabetes, including also parents, unaffected siblings, spouses and children in some cases; ~200 unrelated individuals with normal glucose tolerance at ages 65 and 70 years, with their spouses and children in some cases; and ~8400 mostly unrelated individuals including ~1700 type 2 diabetics selected from the D2D 2004, Finrisk 1987, Finrisk 2002, Health 2000, Action LADA, and Savitaipale Diabetes studies. Extensive phenotype information is available for nearly all study participants, including diabetes disease status and age at diagnosis, demographics, anthropometrics, lipids, and blood pressure.

THL – The National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland; NIH – National Institutes of Health, USA; University of North Carolina, USA; University of Southern California, USA; University of Michigan, USA; Cedars-Sinai Health System, USA
Principal investigators:
Michael Boehnke, lastname (at)
Francis S. Collins, firstname.lastname (at)
Richard Bergman, firstname.lastname (at)
Karen Mohlke, lastname (at)
Jaakko Tuomilehto, firstname.lastname (at)
Contact person:
Michael Boehnke, lastname (at)

Key references:
Valle T, Tuomilehto J, Bergman RN, Ghosh S, Hauser ER, Eriksson J, Nylund SJ, Kohtamäki K, Toivanen L, Vidgren G, Tuomilehto-Wolf E, Ehnholm C, Blaschak J, Langefeld CD, Watanabe RM, Magnuson V, Ally DS, Hagopian WA, Ross E, Buchanan TA, Collins FS, and Boehnke M (1998) Mapping genes for NIDDM. Design of the Finland-United States Investigation of NIDDM Genetics (FUSION) Study. Diabetes Care 21:949-958.

Scott LJ, Mohlke KL, Bonnycastle LL, Willer CJ, Li Y, Duren WL, Erdos MR, Stringham HM, Chines PS, Jackson AU, Prokunina-Olsson L, Ding CJ, Swift AJ, Narisu N, Hu T, Pruim R, Xiao R, Li X-Y, Conneely KN, Riebow NL, Sprau AG, Tong M, White PP, Hetrick KN, Barnhart MW, Bark CW, Goldstein JL, Watkins L, Xiang F, Saramies J, Buchanan TA, Watanabe RM, Valle TT, Kinnunen L, Abecasis GR, Pugh EW, Doheny KF, Bergman RN, Tuomilehto J, Collins FS, and Boehnke M (2007) A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants. Science 316:1341-1345.